新目标英语七年级下2单元重点语法句式结构 - 七年级下册英语句式几种基本结构

时间:2019-02-11分类:英语

新目标英语七年级下2单元重点语法句式结构

重点词组 (Key Phrases)

1.near here 2.on Center Street 3. across from 4.next to 5.in front of

6. between … and … 7.behind the library 8. in the neighborhood 9. post office

10. pay phone 11. go straight 12. turn left 13.take a walk through the park

14. a good place to have fun 15.an old hotel 16. a busy street

17. the way to my house 18. on your right

语法知识:

There be 句型:

(1)用法:“某地 存在 某物/人”即强调某人或某物与某地的位置关系。

(2)结构:“There be + 主语 + 介词短语”

存在(有) 某人/物 某地

说明1:There be有There is / There are 两种形式。由最近一个主语来决定be的单复数。当最近一个主语为单数或不可数名词时,用There is;为复数时,用There are。

如:There is a book on the desk. There are some trees near the river. 河的附近有一些树。

There is a desk and two chairs in the room. 房间里有一张桌子和两把椅子。

(最近一个主语是:a desk)

There are two chairs and a desk in the room.房间里有两把椅子和一张桌子。

(最近一个主语是two chairs)

说明2:“介词短语”表示“地点”,即上册所讲的“方位介词”。也可把介词短语置于句首。学过的有:on in under between(…and) next to behind in front of 如:

There is a clock on the wall. Under the tree there are some girls.

(3)There be句型的一般疑问句及其回答。一般疑问句把be动词提前。

如: Is there an egg on the desk? Yes, there is/No, there isn’t.

Are there any birds in the tree? Yes, there are.

(4)There be句型的否定句。直接在be动词后加not.

如:There aren’t any books on the desk.

(5)对There be句型中的方位介词短语提问时,常用where.

如:There is a park on Green Street. →Where is a park?(去掉there)

(6)对there be句型中的主语提问时,常省略there。

如:There is a desk in the teacher’s room. →What’s in the teacher’s room?

There are two pens in the pencil case. → What’s in the pencil case? (注意常用单数)

(7) There be 句型与have的区别:前者强调的是一种位置关系;have强调的是一种所属关系。

如:There is a pen on my desk. 我桌子上有一支笔。(笔在我桌子上,但不一定是我的。)

I have a pen. 我有一支笔。(不管笔在哪,都是属于我的。)

初一英语句式结构全部的

英语基本句式小结 英语中的句式有很多种,从英语的句子结构上说,总体可以归纳为五个基本句式。一般地说,某些动词用在某一特定句式中。那么,哪些动词常用于哪些句式,我们把这些句型和常用的动词进行归类,每一大类都分出详细的条目,同学们可以在理解记忆各大类的基础上记忆相关动词,并继续归纳总结。 1.S(主)+ Vi(不及物动词)(谓) 1)S + V + adverbial(状语) Birds sing beautifully. 2)S + Vi+ prep Phrase(介词短语) He went on holiday. 3)S + Vi+ Infinitive (不定式) We stopped to have a rest. 4)S + Vi+ Participle (分词) I’ll go swimming 2. S (主)+ Vt (及物动词)(谓)+ O(宾) 1) S + VT + N/Pron I like music. 2) S + VT + infinitive(不定式) I want to help him. 常用于这句型的动词有:attempt,dare,decide,desire,expect,hope,learn,need,offer,refuse,want,wish等。 3) S + VT + Wh-Word + Infinitive I don’t know what to do. 常用于这句型的动词有:ask,consider,decide,discover,explain,find

out,forget,guess,know,learn,observe,remember,see,settle,tell,think,understand,wonder等。 4) S + VT + Gerund I enjoy living here. 常用于这句型的动词有:admit,advise,avoid,consider,defend,enjoy,excuse,finish,mind,miss,practise,risk,suggest,give

up,can't help等。 5) S + VT + That-clause I don’t think (that) he is right. 常用于这句型的动词有:Admit,believe,declare,demand,deny,doubt,expect,explain,feel(觉得),hear(听说),hope,imagine,intend,know,mean,mind(当心),notice,request,report,say,see(看出),show,suggest,suppose,think,understand,wish,wonder(觉得奇怪)。 3. S (主)+ V(谓)(lv)( 系动词)+ P(表) 1)S + Lv + N/Pron(名词/代词) He is a boy. 2)S + Lv + Adj(形容词) She is beautiful. 3)S + Lv + Adv (副词) Class is over. 4)S + Lv + Prep Phrase He is in good health. 5)S + Lv + Participle(分词) The film is interesting. 除了be 系动词外,还有一些动词也可以用作系动词:

表感官的动词,feel,smell,taste,sound,look,appear,seem

等。表转变变化的动词,become,get,grow,turn,go,等。表延续的动词

remain,keep,seem,hold,stay,rest等。表瞬时的动词

come,fall,set,cut,occur等。其他动词

eat,lie,prove,ring,run,shine,sit,stand,continue,hang等。

英语的基本句型主要有五种,它们是:

1、主语———动词———表语

2、主语———动词

3、主语———动词———宾语

4、主语———动词———宾语———宾语

5、主语———动词———宾语———补语

掌握好这些基本句型,就可以为灵活运用语言打下良好的基础。下面分别讲解这五种句型。

一、主语---动词----表语

在这一句型中,动词是系动词,划线部分为表语。

1.Mr.Brown is an engineer.(名词做表语)

2.Gradualy he became silent.(形容词做表语)

3.She remained standing for a hour.(现在分词做表语)

4.The question remained unsolved.(过去分词做表语)

5.The machine is out of order.(介词短语做表语)

6.The television was on.(副词做表语)

7.His plan is to keep the affair secret.(动词不定式做表语)

8.My job is repairing cars.(动名词做表语)

9.The question is what you want to do.(从句做表语,即:表语从句)

注意:在下面的句子中,形容词做表语,在表语的后面常常接不定式结构。

I'm happy to meet you.

They are willing to help.

We are determined to follow his example.

二、主语———动词

在这一句型中,动词为不及物动词及不及物的动词词组。在有的句子中,不及物动词可以有状语修饰。

1.The sun is rising.

2.I'll try.

3.Did you sleep well?(well做状语,修饰不及物动词sleep)

4.The engine broke down.

注意:在此句型中,有少数不及物动词表达被动含义,表达主语本身所具有的特性,不用被动语态。

1.The book sells wel.

2.The window won't shut.

3.The pen writes smoothly.

4.Cheese cuts easily.

三、主语———动词———宾语

在此句型中,动词为及物动词,划线部分为宾语。

1.Do you know these people(them)?(名词或代词做宾语)

2.I can't express myself in English.(反身代词做宾语)

3.He smiled a strange smile.(同源宾语)

4.We can't afford to pay such a price.(不定式做宾语)

5.Would you mind waiting a few minutes?(动名词做宾语)

6.I hope that I have said nothing to pain you.(从句做宾语,即:宾语从句)

注意:并不是所有的及物动词都可以接上述各种情况做宾语,不同的动词有不同的用法,所以,在学习动词时,一定要掌握其用法。

四、主语———动词———宾语———宾语

在此句型中,动词可以称作双宾语动词,在英语中,这样的动词并不多,在学习遇时,要牢记。后面的宾语为间接宾语和直接宾语,其中间接宾语在前,一般表人,直接宾语在后,一般表物。这类句型有三种情况。

第一种情况,间接宾语可以改为to引导的短语。

1.He handed me a letter.

He handed a letter to me.

2.She gave me her telephone number.

She gave her telephone number to me.

第二种情况,间接宾语可以改为for引导的短语。

3.She sang us a folk song.

She sang a folk for us.

4.She cooked us a delicious meal.

She cooked a delicious meal for us.

第三种情况,直接宾语可以由宾语从句充当。

5.Tell him I'm out.

6.Can you inform me where Miss Green lives?

五、主语———动词———宾语———宾语补足语

在此句型中的动词,叫做可以跟复合宾语的动词,在英语中,这样的动词也不多。后面的宾语补足语是说明宾语的情况的,宾语和宾语补足语一起被称做复合宾语。这个句式是英语中比较复杂的一个句式,因为复合宾语的构成内容较多。下面句子中划线部分为宾语补足语。

1.He found his new job boring.(形容词做宾补)

2.The called their daughter Mary.(名词做宾补)

3.This placed her in a very difficult position.(介词短语做宾补)

4.We went to here house but found her out.(副词做宾补)

5.What do you advise me to do?(不定式做宾补)

6.We thought him to be an honest man.(tobe做宾补)

7.He believed them to have discussed the problem.(不定式的完成式做宾补)

8.He believed her to be telling the truth.(不定式的进行式做宾补)

9.Did you notice him come in?(不带to的不定式做宾补)

10.I saw her chatting with Nancy.(现在分词做宾补)

11.He watched the piano carried upstairs.(过去分词做宾补)

注意:在这个结构中,可以出现用it做形式上的宾语,把真正的宾语放在宾语补足语的后面。在此结构中,宾语常常是动词不定式或宾语从句。

1.He felt it his duty to mention this to her.

分析:it是形式宾语,hisduty是宾语补足语,to mention this to her是真正的宾语。

2.I think it best that you should stay with us.

分析:it是形式宾语,best是宾语补足语,that you should stay with us是真正的宾语。

注意:

1.习惯用语的使用

在英语中,有很多动词习惯用语,在学习的过程中,要注意它们的使用,不必分析单独每个词的使用。

例:

We are short of money.(be short of中short做表语)

She is always making trouble for her friends.(trouble做make的宾语)

He has carried out our instructions to the letter.(our instructions做词组carry out的宾语)

We are waiting for the rain to stop.(wait for后面的the rain是宾语,to stop是宾语补足语)

2.在英语中,大多数动词既可以做及物动词又可以做不及物动词,而且还会有一些固定词组,因此一个动词可以用于几种句型。

例:ask

①Did you ask the price?(直接接名词做宾语)

②She asked them their names.(接双宾语)

③I asked James to buy some bread.(接宾语加不定式做宾语补足语)

④I asked to speak to Fred.(接不定式做宾语)

⑤Didn't you ask him in?(在此句中和副词in连用)

⑥He has asked for an interview with the President.(组成固定词组ask for)

3.There be句型是一种特殊的句子,真正的主语在后面,含义为“有…”

①谓语动词和主语保持一致:There is a television in the sitting room.

②有两个或更多的主语时,动词一般和最近的一个保持一致:There are two girls and a boy dancing in the hall.

③主语的后面有时有修饰语:There are a lot of difficulties facing us.There were many things to be done(此处也可以使用to do).

④谓语动词be可以有时态的变化:There will be a concert in the park tonight.There was little change in him.

⑤谓语也可以有不定式构成的复合谓语。

There used to be a cinema here.

There seems to be something the matter with her.

Is there going to be any activity tonight?

⑥there be句式变疑问句,把be提前;变翻译疑问句也要借助there。

Is there any hope of getting the job?

There is nothing wrong with your watch,is there?

⑦there be句型中也可以使用诸如:live,follow,come,stand,sit,exist等不及物动词:

Once upon a time,there lived a fisherman on the island.

There came a knock at the door.

At the top of the hill there stands an old temple.

⑧用于非谓语的情况下,有时用不定式的复合结构there to be或动名词的复合结构和独立主格结构there being:

You wouldn't want there to be another war.(不定式的复合结构)

The teacher was satisfied with there being no mistakes in his homework.(动名词的复合结构)

There being nothing else to do,we went home.(独立主格结构)

七年级下册英语句型有哪些固定短语有哪些

七年级英语下册第1-2单元重点短语集锦

1. be/come from来自 2. a little / a bit of 一点(修饰不可数名词)

3. like doing sth/like to do sth 喜欢做某事(前者强调习惯,后者强调一次性)

4. write to sb 给某人写信 5. tell sb about sth 告诉某人关于某事

6. on weekends 在周末 7. go to the movies 去看电影

8. live in 居住在 9. speak English 说英语

10. in October 在十月(在日期和表示星期几的词前用on, 在日期或者星期几的上午、下午或者晚上用on,在某年、某月、某季节前用in,在某个时刻前用at)

11. post office 邮局 12. pay phone 投币式公用电话

13. on Center Street 在中心街 14. near here=in the neighborhood 在附近

15. across from 在……对面 16. next to 在旁边

17. in front of 在……前面 18. between…and… 在……和……之间

19. turn left/right 向左(右)转 20. on the left/right 在左(右)边

21. take a walk = have a walk = go for a walk 散步

22. have fun = have a good time 玩得高兴

23. take a taxi 乘出租车 24. have a good trip 旅途愉快

25. go down/along 沿着……向前走 26. go through 穿过

27. the way to 去……的路 28. next Sunday下个星期天

29. on your left/right 在你的左(右)边 30. welcome to 欢迎来到

31. at the beginning of 在……的开始 31. pen pal 笔友 =pen friend

32. the United States 美国 32. the United Kingdom 英国

七年级英语下册第3-4单元重点短语集锦

1. let sb do sth 让某人做某事 2. kind of 有几分

3. at night 在晚上 in the day 在白天4. South Africa 南非

5. play with 和……玩 6. shop assistant 店员

7. bank clerk 银行职员 8. TV/ police station 电视台/警察局

9. work with 和……工作 10. work for 为……工作

11. work hard 努力工作(学习) 12. get…from…从……得到……

13. give sb sth=give sth to sb把某物给某人

14. in the day 在白天 15. talk to/with 和……谈话

16. ask sb questions问某人问题 17. go out to dinners 出去吃晚饭

18. in a hospital 在医院里 19.write stories 写故事