高中英语时态 - 高中英语重点时态

时间:2018-08-08分类:英语

高中英语时态

时态和时间是两个不同的概念。时间是一种客观存在的形式,它不依赖于任何一种特定的语言,为所有的文化共有。时态是一种语言的手段,依语言的不同而有所区别,它是属于动词的语法范畴。英语动词时态是以动词形式变化来表示句子中谈到的动作、状态的时间关系和说话的时间。因此我们可以看到时态和时间两者间虽然有关系,但不可以混淆。

The plane leaves tomorrow morning. 飞机明晨起飞。

此句中的时态为一般现在时,但是它所表示的时间却为将来(明晨)

英语动词的常用时态总共有十六种:

一般现在时 现在进行时 一般过去时 过去进行时

一般将来时 将来进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时

将来完成时 现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时

1. 一般现在时

一般现在时的形式

是以动词的原形表示的,当主语为第三人称单数时,做谓语的动词原形后要加上词尾-s or –es, 其构成方式列表如下:

情况 构成 例词

一般情况 词尾加-s Reads, writes

以ch,sh,s,x,o结尾的词 词尾加-es Teaches,washes,guesses, fixes, goes

以辅音字母+Y 结尾的词 变Y为I,再加-es Tries, carries

但是,动词to be 和to have 的一般现在时的形式特殊如下:

一般动词的词形变化 To be 的词形变化 To have 的词形变化

I know it I am a student I have a pen.

You know it. You are a student You have a pen

He (she) knows it. He (she) is a student. He (she)has a pen.

We (you,they) know it. We (you,they) are students. We (you,they) have pens.

一般现在时的功用

1. 表示一直发生的事情,经常发生的动作:

Nurses look after patients in hospitals.

Excuse me, do you speak English?

I get up at 8 o’clock every morning.

It often rains in summer in Beijing.

2. 表示客观事实或者真理:

Birds fly.

The earth goes around the sun.

3. 谈论时间表、旅程表等,如:

What time does the film begin?

The football match starts at 8 o’clock.

Tomorrow is Thursday.

4. 谈论籍贯、国籍等,如:

Where do you come from?

I come from China. 你是哪国人?我是中国人。

Where do you come from?

I come from Guangzhou. 你是哪里人?我是广州人。

5. 询问或者引用书籍、通知或新近接到的信笺内容,如:

What does that notice say?

What does Ann say in her letter?

She says she’s coming to Beijing next week.

Shakespears says, “Neither a borrower or a lender be.”

莎士比亚说:“既不要向人借钱,也不要借钱给别人。”

一般过去时

一般过去时是表示在说话时间以前发生的动作或者状态的动词时态,它是英语时态体系中最重要的时态之一。

1) 一般过去时规则动词的构成形式:

规则动词在其原形后面加-ed:

to work-worked

以字母e结尾的规则动词,只加-d:

to love---loved

对所有人称均无词形变化。

否定式均由did not + 动词原形构成

I / you / he / she / they / we did not work.

疑问式均由 did + 主语 + 动词原形 构成

拼写注意:

情况 变化 例词

动词为单音节,以一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾 辅音字母双写,再加-ed Stop-stoppedAdmit—admitted

以y结尾的动词,在y 前为辅音字母时 Y 变为 I ,加 – ed Carry –carriedHurry –hurried

以y 结尾的动词,在y 前为元音字母时 加—ed Obey—obeyedEnjoy---enjoyed

在英语当中有一部分动词的过去式变化形式是不规则的,这类动词被称为不规则动词。总数大概不过200多个,但是使用频率很高。主要分成三类:

1》 第一类不规则动词的三种形式同形,如:

cost cost cost

cut cut cut

hurt hurt hurt

shut shut shut

set set set

注意,有些动词的过去式与过去分词有两中形式,如:

bet bet / betted bet / betted

wed wed / wedded wed / wedded

wet wet / wetted wet / wetted

2》 第二类不规则动词的过去式和过去分词同形,如:

bend bent bent

bring brought brought

catch caught caught

hide hid hid / hidden

get got got/ gotten(AmE)

lead led led

3》 第三类不规则动词的原形、过去式和过去分词都不相同,如:

原形 过去式 过去分词

begin began begun

break broke broken

forbid forbade forbidden

grow grew grown

ring rang rung

wake woke / waked woken / waked

此外还有少数不规则动词的过去分词与原形相同,如:

come came come

become became become

run ran run

一般过去时的功用

1) 表示一个没指明具体时间的过去的行动,如:

He worked in that bank for four years. (没说明起始时间,但是现在不在那里工作了)。

They once saw Deng Xiaopin.

Did you ever hear BackStreet Boy sing?

2) 表示在过去特定的时间结束的行动,如:

When did you meet him?

I met him yesterday.

When we lived in Phoenix, we studied at Arizona State University.

Where have you been?

I’ve been to the opera.

Did you enjoy it?

3) 表示过去的习惯

He always carried an umbrella.

They never drank wine.

现在完成时的形式

现在完成时由to have 的现在时+过去分词构成:

肯定式 否定式 疑问式 否定疑问式

I have worked I have not worked Have I worked? Have I not worked?

You have worked You havenot worked Have you worked? Have you not worked?

He (she)has worked. He(she)has not worked. Has he(she) worked? Has he(she) not worked?

We(you / they) have worked. We (you / they) have not worked. Have we (you / they) worked? Have we (you / they) not worked?

紧缩形式

现在完成时的功用

现在完成时可以说成是兼有现在与过去意义的一种复合时态。它与现在有密切联系,如:

------Oh,dear, I’ve forgotten her name.

和现在的联系就是 I don’t remember her name now.

------Fort has gone to Canada.

和现在的联系就是 He is not here. He is in Canada now.

1) 表示延续到现在的动作 (有时是总计做了多少次等)。

How many times have you been to the United States?

She really loves that film. She has seen it eight times.

Tom has lived in Now York all his life.

2) 表示开始与过去而在说话时刻结束的行动,如:

I haven’t seen you for ages. 我好久没见到你了。(说话时刻已经见到了)

This room hasn’t been cleaned for months. (也许从说话开始时刻就要打扫它了)

3) 表示过去的动作对现在造成的影响,如:

The window has broken.

4) 和最高级连用,表示到现在为止是最……的

What a boring film! It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen.

Is it a thick book?------Yes, it is the thickest book I’ve ever read.

5) 和句型 This is the first time…, It’s the first time 连用,如:

This is the first time he has driven a car.

(相当于 he has never driven a car before.)

Is this the first time you’ve been in hospital?

Professor Johnson has lost his passport again. It’s the second time he has lost it.

6) 和ever, never, yet, just, already 等副词连用,如:

Have you ever eaten French cheese?

We have never had a private car.

Has it stopped raining yet? (yet 表示期待雨停止)

Would you like something to eat?

No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch.

Don’t forget to mail the letter, will you?

I’ve already mailed it. (already 表示比预料的要快)

7)与since 连用,since 表示与某一时刻或从句连用,表示“从那一刻到说话时为止”,它总是与完成时连用,如:

She has been here since 6 o’clock.

He hasn’t been himself since the accident. (那次事故后,他从未完全康复)

Since I was a child I have lived in England.

一般过去时与现在完成时的比较

1) 过去时仅仅表示过去,现在完成时还表示与现在的关系,如:

He has lost his key.

He lost his key.

2) 与现在无关的或者过去很久的历史事件不能用现在完成时

The Chinese invented printing.

Shakespear wrote Hamlet.

3)如果说明动作有特定的过去时间,就不能用现在完成时,如:

Did you see the film on television last night?

Tom lost his key yesterday.

询问某事发生的具体时间或者地点时(when , what time, where), when , what time, where), 用一般过去时,如:

What time did they arrive?

When and where were you born?

比较:

Have you see Ann this moring? ( 说话时仍为上午)

Did you see Ann this morning? ( 说话时为下午)

Jack has lived in London for six years. 还在伦敦住

Jack lived in London for six years. 先不住伦敦了

I have never played golf in my life.

I didn’t play golf when I was on holiday last summer.

现在进行时

现在进行时是由助动词to be 的现在时 + 现在分词构成:

肯定式 否定式 疑问式

I am working.You are working.He (she) is working.We (you,they) are working. I am not working.You are not working.He (she) is not working.We (you,they) are not working. Am I working?Are you working?Is he (she) working?Are we (you,they) working?

现在分词的构成,是在动词原形上加—ing, 但是应该注意:

情况 变化 例词

动词以单个e 结尾 去掉e, 加 ing Love _lovingArgue _ arguing

动词以 —ee结尾 直接加 ing Agree_ agreeingSee _ seeing

动词为单音节:以单一元音字母 + 单一辅音字母结尾 辅音字母双写,再加 ing Hit _ hittingRun _runningStop _ stopping

动词为双音节或者多音节:最后一个音节为重读音节,以单一元音字母 + 单一辅音字母结尾 辅音字母双写,再加 ing Be’gin be’ginningAd’mit ad’mitting

以 y 结尾的动词 直接加 ing Carry carryingEnjoy enjoying

现在进行时的功用

1) 表示说话时正在发生或者进行的动作

Please don’t make so much noise, I’m studying.

Let’s get out. It isn’t raining any more.

2) 表示在现在相对较长一段时间内正在进行的动作,但是说话一刻不一定在做的动作

Have you heard about Tom? He is building his own house.

David is teaching English and learning Chinese in Beijing.

这些动作,在说话时并不一定在发生或进行,而是在包括说话的一刹那在内的一段时间内发生、进行的。

3)表示最近的确定的安排

Ann is coming tomorrow.

Oh, is she? What time is she arriving?

At 10:15.

Are you meeting her at the station?

I can’t. I’m working tomorrow morning.

以上句子也可以用be going to (do) 的形式来表示。但是谈论已确定的安排时候,用现在进行时态显得更加自然,除非受到动词的功能的限制。在此,切不可用will, 如:

Alex is getting married next month. 不能用 will get married.

4) 和always 连用表示某种情绪,可能是厌烦也可能是赞扬,如:

Tom is always going away for weekends.

My husband is always doing homework.

有些动词是表示一种状态而不是动作,一般不用于进行时。例如,我们一般不说 I am knowing, 而说 I know. 常见的这类动词有:

want like hate know see hear believe understand seem

think(相信) suppose remember need love realize mean forget prefer have (拥有)belong

To understand is to accept. 理解就是接受

Do you like Beijing?

Do you see the rainbow?

I remember him very well.

I think I understand what he wants.

一般现在时和现在进行时的比较

一般现在时表示的是一般、重复的动作或者事情

现在进行时表示说话时或说话前后正在发生的动作或事情,如:

Tom plays tennis every Sunday.

Where’s Tom? -------He is playing tennis.

What do you do? 你是干什么工作的?

What are you doing here? 你在这里干什么?

一般现在时是表示经久的情况,而现在进行时表示的是暂时的,如:

My parents live in Shanghai. They have been there for 50 years.

She’s living with some friends until she can find an apartment.

过去进行时

过去进行时的构成形式为:

I / he /she was

We / they / you were + 动词的现在分词

过去进行时的功用

1) 表示在过去某个时间后者某段时间正在进行的动作,如:

When I rang him up, he was having dinner.

This time last year I was living in Shanghai.

What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night?

2) 过去进行时和一般过去时连用,表示在一个动作发生的过程中,发生了另一个动作,如:

It was raining when I got up.

I fell asleep when I was watching television.

3) 过去一般时所说明的动作是已经完成的,而过去进行时不表示正在进行的动作一定会完成,如:

Tom was cooking the dinner.

Tom cooked the dinner.

现在完成进行时

其构成形式如下:

I / we / they have

He / she / it has been + 动词的现在分词

功用如下:

1) 表示一个在过去开始而在最近刚刚结束的行动,如:

Ann is very tired. She has been working hard.

Why are you clothes so dirty? What have you been doing?

2) 表示一个从过去开始但仍在进行的行动,如:

It has been raining for two hours. (现在还在下)

Jack hasn’t been feeling very well recently.

3) 表示一个从过去开始延续到现在,可以包括现在在内的一个阶段内,重复发生的行动,如:

She has been playing tennis since she was eight.

4) 现在完成时强调动作行为的结果、影响,而现在完成进行时只强调动作行为本身,如:

Tom’s hands are very dirty. He has been repairing the car.

The car is going again now. Tom has repaired it.

想问问高中英语语法有哪些是重点啊(就是一定要都的

冠词,名词,动词,形容词和副词,连词。名词性从句,定语从句,状语从句。时态和语态

有哪些高中英语语法比较重要的该怎样学好

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