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英语 7种 基本句型_英语

英语的基本句型主要有五种,它们是:
1、主语———动词———表语
2、主语———动词
3、主语———动词———宾语
4、主语———动词———宾语———宾语
5、主语———动词———宾语———补语
掌握好这些基本句型,就可以为灵活运用语言打下良好的基础.下面分别讲解这五种句型.
一、主语---动词----表语
在这一句型中,动词是系动词,划线部分为表语.
1.Mr.Brown is an engineer.(名词做表语)
2.Gradualy he became silent.(形容词做表语)
3.She remained standing for a hour.(现在分词做表语)
4.The question remained unsolved.(过去分词做表语)
5.The machine is out of order.(介词短语做表语)
6.The television was on.(副词做表语)
7.His plan is to keep the affair secret.(动词不定式做表语)
8.My job is repairing cars.(动名词做表语)
9.The question is what you want to do.(从句做表语,即:表语从句)
注意:在下面的句子中,形容词做表语,在表语的后面常常接不定式结构.
I'm happy to meet you.
They are willing to help.
We are determined to follow his example.
二、主语———动词
在这一句型中,动词为不及物动词及不及物的动词词组.在有的句子中,不及物动词可以有状语修饰.
1.The sun is rising.
2.I'll try.
3.Did you sleep well?(well做状语,修饰不及物动词sleep)
4.The engine broke down.
注意:在此句型中,有少数不及物动词表达被动含义,表达主语本身所具有的特性,不用被动语态.
1.The book sells wel.
2.The window won't shut.
3.The pen writes smoothly.
4.Cheese cuts easily.
三、主语———动词———宾语
在此句型中,动词为及物动词,划线部分为宾语.
1.Do you know these people(them)?(名词或代词做宾语)
2.I can't express myself in English.(反身代词做宾语)
3.He smiled a strange smile.(同源宾语)
4.We can't afford to pay such a price.(不定式做宾语)
5.Would you mind waiting a few minutes?(动名词做宾语)
6.I hope that I have said nothing to pain you.(从句做宾语,即:宾语从句)
注意:并不是所有的及物动词都可以接上述各种情况做宾语,不同的动词有不同的用法,所以,在学习动词时,一定要掌握其用法.
四、主语———动词———宾语———宾语
在此句型中,动词可以称作双宾语动词,在英语中,这样的动词并不多,在学习遇时,要牢记.后面的宾语为间接宾语和直接宾语,其中间接宾语在前,一般表人,直接宾语在后,一般表物.这类句型有三种情况.
第一种情况,间接宾语可以改为to引导的短语.
1.He handed me a letter.
He handed a letter to me.
2.She gave me her telephone number.
She gave her telephone number to me.
第二种情况,间接宾语可以改为for引导的短语.
3.She sang us a folk song.
She sang a folk for us.
4.She cooked us a delicious meal.
She cooked a delicious meal for us.
第三种情况,直接宾语可以由宾语从句充当.
5.Tell him I'm out.
6.Can you inform me where Miss Green lives?
五、主语———动词———宾语———宾语补足语
在此句型中的动词,叫做可以跟复合宾语的动词,在英语中,这样的动词也不多.后面的宾语补足语是说明宾语的情况的,宾语和宾语补足语一起被称做复合宾语.这个句式是英语中比较复杂的一个句式,因为复合宾语的构成内容较多.下面句子中划线部分为宾语补足语.
1.He found his new job boring.(形容词做宾补)
2.The called their daughter Mary.(名词做宾补)
3.This placed her in a very difficult position.(介词短语做宾补)
4.We went to here house but found her out.(副词做宾补)
5.What do you advise me to do?(不定式做宾补)
6.We thought him to be an honest man.(tobe做宾补)
7.He believed them to have discussed the problem.(不定式的完成式做宾补)
8.He believed her to be telling the truth.(不定式的进行式做宾补)
9.Did you notice him come in?(不带to的不定式做宾补)
10.I saw her chatting with Nancy.(现在分词做宾补)
11.He watched the piano carried upstairs.(过去分词做宾补)
注意:在这个结构中,可以出现用it做形式上的宾语,把真正的宾语放在宾语补足语的后面.在此结构中,宾语常常是动词不定式或宾语从句.
1.He felt it his duty to mention this to her.
分析:it是形式宾语,hisduty是宾语补足语,to mention this to her是真正的宾语.
2.I think it best that you should stay with us.
分析:it是形式宾语,best是宾语补足语,that you should stay with us是真正的宾语.
注意:
1.习惯用语的使用
在英语中,有很多动词习惯用语,在学习的过程中,要注意它们的使用,不必分析单独每个词的使用.
例:
We are short of money.(be short of中short做表语)
She is always making trouble for her friends.(trouble做make的宾语)
He has carried out our instructions to the letter.(our instructions做词组carry out的宾语)
We are waiting for the rain to stop.(wait for后面的the rain是宾语,to stop是宾语补足语)
2.在英语中,大多数动词既可以做及物动词又可以做不及物动词,而且还会有一些固定词组,因此一个动词可以用于几种句型.
例:ask
①Did you ask the price?(直接接名词做宾语)
②She asked them their names.(接双宾语)
③I asked James to buy some bread.(接宾语加不定式做宾语补足语)
④I asked to speak to Fred.(接不定式做宾语)
⑤Didn't you ask him in?(在此句中和副词in连用)
⑥He has asked for an interview with the President.(组成固定词组ask for)
3.There be句型是一种特殊的句子,真正的主语在后面,含义为“有…”
①谓语动词和主语保持一致:There is a television in the sitting room.
②有两个或更多的主语时,动词一般和最近的一个保持一致:There are two girls and a boy dancing in the hall.
③主语的后面有时有修饰语:There are a lot of difficulties facing us.There were many things to be done(此处也可以使用to do).
④谓语动词be可以有时态的变化:There will be a concert in the park tonight.There was little change in him.
⑤谓语也可以有不定式构成的复合谓语.
There used to be a cinema here.
There seems to be something the matter with her.
Is there going to be any activity tonight?
⑥there be句式变疑问句,把be提前;变翻译疑问句也要借助there.
Is there any hope of getting the job?
There is nothing wrong with your watch,is there?
⑦there be句型中也可以使用诸如:live,follow,come,stand,sit,exist等不及物动词:
Once upon a time,there lived a fisherman on the island.
There came a knock at the door.
At the top of the hill there stands an old temple.
⑧用于非谓语的情况下,有时用不定式的复合结构there to be或动名词的复合结构和独立主格结构there being:
You wouldn't want there to be another war.(不定式的复合结构)
The teacher was satisfied with there being no mistakes in his homework.(动名词的复合结构)
There being nothing else to do,we went home.(独立主格结构)
■巩固性练习
请判断下列句子的结构类型
1.He is running.
2.The loud voice from the upstairs made him angry.
3.The little boy is asking the teacher all kinds of questions.
4.She seemed angry.
5.My father bought me a beautiful present.
6.Why do you keep your eyes closed?
7.Will you tell us an exciting story?
8.We must keep our classroom tidy and clean.
9.I heard the baby crying in the sitting room.
10.Can you push the window open?
答案:
1.主语---动词
2.主语---动词---宾语---补语
3.主语---动词---宾语---宾语
4.主语---动词----表语
5.主语---动词---宾语---宾语
6.主语---动词---宾语---宾语
7.主语---动词---宾语---补语
8.主语---动词---宾语---补语
9.主语---动词---宾语---补语
10.主语---动词---宾语---补语

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