是以动词的原形表示的,当主语为第三人称单数时,做谓语的动词原形后要加上词尾-s or -es, 其构成方式列表如下：
情况 构成 例词
一般情况 词尾加-s Reads, writes
以ch,sh,s,x,o结尾的词 词尾加-es Teaches,washes,guesses, fixes, goes
以辅音字母+Y 结尾的词 变Y为I,再加-es Tries, carries
但是,动词to be 和to have 的一般现在时的形式特殊如下：
一般动词的词形变化 To be 的词形变化 To have 的词形变化
I know it I am a student I have a pen.
You know it. You are a student You have a pen
He (she) knows it. He (she) is a student. He (she)has a pen.
We (you,they) know it. We (you,they) are students. We (you,they) have pens.
Nurses look after patients in hospitals.
Excuse me, do you speak English?
I get up at 8 o’clock every morning.
It often rains in summer in Beijing.
The earth goes around the sun.
What time does the film begin?
The football match starts at 8 o’clock.
Tomorrow is Thursday.
Where do you come from?
I come from China. 你是哪国人?我是中国人.
Where do you come from?
I come from Guangzhou. 你是哪里人?我是广州人.
What does that notice say?
What does Ann say in her letter?
She says she’s coming to Beijing next week.
Shakespears says, “Neither a borrower or a lender be.”
否定式均由did not + 动词原形构成
I / you / he / she / they / we did not work.
疑问式均由 did + 主语 + 动词原形 构成
情况 变化 例词
动词为单音节,以一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾 辅音字母双写,再加-ed Stop-stoppedAdmit-admitted
以y结尾的动词,在y 前为辅音字母时 Y 变为 I ,加 - ed Carry -carriedHurry -hurried
以y 结尾的动词,在y 前为元音字母时 加-ed Obey-obeyedEnjoy---enjoyed
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
hurt hurt hurt
shut shut shut
set set set
bet bet / betted bet / betted
wed wed / wedded wed / wedded
wet wet / wetted wet / wetted
bend bent bent
bring brought brought
catch caught caught
hide hid hid / hidden
get got got/ gotten(AmE)
lead led led
原形 过去式 过去分词
begin began begun
break broke broken
forbid forbade forbidden
grow grew grown
ring rang rung
wake woke / waked woken / waked
come came come
become became become
run ran run
He worked in that bank for four years. (没说明起始时间,但是现在不在那里工作了).
They once saw Deng Xiaopin.
Did you ever hear BackStreet Boy sing?
When did you meet him?
I met him yesterday.
When we lived in Phoenix, we studied at Arizona State University.
Where have you been?
I’ve been to the opera.
Did you enjoy it?
He always carried an umbrella.
They never drank wine.
现在完成时由to have 的现在时+过去分词构成：
肯定式 否定式 疑问式 否定疑问式
I have worked I have not worked Have I worked? Have I not worked?
You have worked You havenot worked Have you worked? Have you not worked?
He (she)has worked. He(she)has not worked. Has he(she) worked? Has he(she) not worked?
We(you / they) have worked. We (you / they) have not worked. Have we (you / they) worked? Have we (you / they) not worked?
------Oh,dear, I’ve forgotten her name.
和现在的联系就是 I don’t remember her name now.
------Fort has gone to Canada.
和现在的联系就是 He is not here. He is in Canada now.
1) 表示延续到现在的动作 （有时是总计做了多少次等）.
How many times have you been to the United States?
She really loves that film. She has seen it eight times.
Tom has lived in Now York all his life.
I haven’t seen you for ages. 我好久没见到你了.（说话时刻已经见到了）
This room hasn’t been cleaned for months. (也许从说话开始时刻就要打扫它了)
The window has broken.
What a boring film! It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen.
Is it a thick book?------Yes, it is the thickest book I’ve ever read.
5) 和句型 This is the first time…, It’s the first time 连用,如：
This is the first time he has driven a car.
(相当于 he has never driven a car before.)
Is this the first time you’ve been in hospital?
Professor Johnson has lost his passport again. It’s the second time he has lost it.
6) 和ever, never, yet, just, already 等副词连用,如：
Have you ever eaten French cheese?
We have never had a private car.
Has it stopped raining yet? (yet 表示期待雨停止)
Would you like something to eat?
No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch.
Don’t forget to mail the letter, will you?
I’ve already mailed it. (already 表示比预料的要快)
7）与since 连用,since 表示与某一时刻或从句连用,表示“从那一刻到说话时为止”,它总是与完成时连用,如：
She has been here since 6 o’clock.
He hasn’t been himself since the accident. （那次事故后,他从未完全康复）
Since I was a child I have lived in England.
He has lost his key.
He lost his key.
The Chinese invented printing.
Shakespear wrote Hamlet.
Did you see the film on television last night?
Tom lost his key yesterday.
询问某事发生的具体时间或者地点时（when , what time, where）, when , what time, where）, 用一般过去时,如：
What time did they arrive?
When and where were you born?
Have you see Ann this moring? ( 说话时仍为上午)
Did you see Ann this morning? ( 说话时为下午)
Jack has lived in London for six years. 还在伦敦住
Jack lived in London for six years. 先不住伦敦了
I have never played golf in my life.
I didn’t play golf when I was on holiday last summer.
现在进行时是由助动词to be 的现在时 + 现在分词构成：
肯定式 否定式 疑问式
I am working.You are working.He (she) is working.We (you,they) are working. I am not working.You are not working.He (she) is not working.We (you,they) are not working. Am I working?Are you working?Is he (she) working?Are we (you,they) working?
情况 变化 例词
动词以单个e 结尾 去掉e, 加 ing Love _lovingArgue _ arguing
动词以 -ee结尾 直接加 ing Agree_ agreeingSee _ seeing
动词为单音节：以单一元音字母 + 单一辅音字母结尾 辅音字母双写,再加 ing Hit _ hittingRun _runningStop _ stopping
动词为双音节或者多音节：最后一个音节为重读音节,以单一元音字母 + 单一辅音字母结尾 辅音字母双写,再加 ing Be’gin be’ginningAd’mit ad’mitting
以 y 结尾的动词 直接加 ing Carry carryingEnjoy enjoying
Please don’t make so much noise, I’m studying.
Let’s get out. It isn’t raining any more.
Have you heard about Tom? He is building his own house.
David is teaching English and learning Chinese in Beijing.
Ann is coming tomorrow.
Oh, is she? What time is she arriving?
Are you meeting her at the station?
I can’t. I’m working tomorrow morning.
以上句子也可以用be going to (do) 的形式来表示.但是谈论已确定的安排时候,用现在进行时态显得更加自然,除非受到动词的功能的限制.在此,切不可用will, 如：
Alex is getting married next month. 不能用 will get married.
4) 和always 连用表示某种情绪,可能是厌烦也可能是赞扬,如：
Tom is always going away for weekends.
My husband is always doing homework.
有些动词是表示一种状态而不是动作,一般不用于进行时.例如,我们一般不说 I am knowing, 而说 I know. 常见的这类动词有：
want like hate know see hear believe understand seem
think(相信) suppose remember need love realize mean forget prefer have （拥有）belong
To understand is to accept. 理解就是接受
Do you like Beijing?
Do you see the rainbow?
I remember him very well.
I think I understand what he wants.
Tom plays tennis every Sunday.
Where’s Tom? -------He is playing tennis.
What do you do? 你是干什么工作的?
What are you doing here? 你在这里干什么?
My parents live in Shanghai. They have been there for 50 years.
She’s living with some friends until she can find an apartment.
I / he /she was
We / they / you were + 动词的现在分词
When I rang him up, he was having dinner.
This time last year I was living in Shanghai.
What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night?
It was raining when I got up.
I fell asleep when I was watching television.
Tom was cooking the dinner.
Tom cooked the dinner.
I / we / they have
He / she / it has been + 动词的现在分词
Ann is very tired. She has been working hard.
Why are you clothes so dirty? What have you been doing?
It has been raining for two hours. (现在还在下)
Jack hasn’t been feeling very well recently.
She has been playing tennis since she was eight.
Tom’s hands are very dirty. He has been repairing the car.
The car is going again now. Tom has repaired it.
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